five freedoms


Five Freedoms (after statement by Farm Animal Welfare Council, December 6, 1979), Víctor Muñoz Sanz, 2019. Following the profound impact of Ruth Harrison’s Animal Machines (1964) and her look at gruesome practices of intensive farming in the 1960’s, the UK Farm Welfare Council released in a press statement a set of non-mandatory codes. These codes aimed at creating the best possible standards of welfare for animals in all systems of livestock husbandry. Instead of as animal rights, these codes were expressed as the Five Freedoms.



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